Brief analysis on energy-saving methods of ecological building materials

With the inclination of national policies towards the construction industry in recent years, my country’s construction industry has come back to life. However, the current construction industry has problems such as waste and environmental pollution. Therefore, ecological architecture is an inevitable choice for sustainable development of buildings. Ecological architecture is far superior to ordinary buildings. It is a building that will not cause harm to the human body on the basis of sustainable development. Ecological architecture is more conducive to the long-term survival and development of human beings and is a more high-quality and reliable choice.

1.Definition of ecological architecture and building materials energy saving
1.1 Definition and development of ecological architecture
So-called ecological architecture is a healthy, environmentally friendly and energy-saving project built by combining new energy technology, green ecology, architecture and other aspects according to the characteristics of the building environment, putting the environment first, combining people and buildings into one. The core idea of ​​ecological architecture is green architecture, which should also be combined with the people-oriented architectural concept, and is committed to giving people a comfortable and green choice.

The term “ecological building” was introduced to my country relatively late, only a few decades ago, but in Western developed countries, a complete ecological evaluation standard system has been established, with clear regulations on ecological protection, indoor air circulation, noise pollution, etc. These standards often vary according to regional differences, but they all put ecological protection first, including energy-saving systems, green circulation, energy recycling and other building materials selection.

1.2 Definition of energy-saving building materials
Energy-saving building materials: that is, construction building materials, combined with the green ecological concept, the implementation of energy-saving building materials can greatly reduce the waste of resources in construction, thereby achieving effective integration of resources and energy, and then reducing the damage to the ecological environment, which will effectively ensure the improvement of the ecological environment.

2.Ecological basis of energy-saving system
Energy-saving technology is the foundation of ecological architecture. In general, ordinary energy-consuming building materials are mainly used for indoor temperature regulation and lighting. To this end, the basic idea of ​​energy saving is to use as much recycled or renewable energy as possible. First, two effective measures can be taken to effectively reduce energy waste: one is to reasonably convert external solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy into energy that can be used by humans, that is, “open source”; the second is to separate the internal and external environments, and through the design of wall materials, make the indoor temperature relatively stable with the outside temperature, that is, “throttling”.

    To a certain extent, the entire ecological building can be understood as a set of energy-saving and environmental protection systems. Since the ratio of the surface area of ​​the building in contact with the outdoor atmosphere to the volume it surrounds is greater than 0.3, it will greatly reduce energy consumption. At present, all energy-saving buildings in the world are limited, and have not yet been implemented in particularly high buildings. In addition, ecological buildings can also consider the wind direction problem more. When the angle is adjusted by 30-60 degrees, the indoor temperature can be avoided from dropping sharply due to the cold winter. In short, an energy-saving system is a green energy-saving whole. If any part is missing, the greatest advantages of green energy saving and environmental protection will not be brought into play.

    3.Application of environmentally friendly building materials in ecological buildings
    If the site selection, exterior design, and greening layout of the building are the soul and blood of the entire system, then building materials are the skeleton and skin of this body. Building materials are the most direct contact point between users and ecological buildings. Therefore, if inferior building materials that volatilize formaldehyde, benzene, radon and other components are used, it will cause the most direct harm to the user’s body; if the building materials used cannot reflect the concept of ecology and cannot cooperate with the operation of the entire system, then it will inevitably become a failure of the entire design.

    Environmentally friendly building materials should have the following characteristics: meet the requirements of mechanical properties, functional use and durability of buildings; have affinity with the natural environment and comply with the principle of sustainable development; and be able to build a comfortable, healthy and convenient living environment for residents. Wood is one of the more primitive building materials of mankind, and is more friendly than cement, granite and other man-made materials. The three-story office building of the Marché International Agency, the first zero-energy building in Switzerland that represents the development direction of ecological buildings, is completely made of wood. Except for two concrete stairs, all components were processed on the lathe in the factory, and then the workers built a building on the construction site like building blocks. It is particularly worth mentioning that the wood used in the building has been specially processed and is a mixture of load-bearing boards, heat insulation boards and sound insulation boards. It can be said that it has multiple uses, which greatly reduces the unnecessary investment of other materials and redundant manpower.

    In addition to the traditional environmentally friendly building materials, the concept of intelligent building materials has also emerged. Intelligent building materials refer to composite materials or composite materials that are manufactured using the principles of bionics and can automatically adjust their own performance parameters to adapt to environmental changes. Among traditional building materials, gypsum can balance the humidity in the air by “breathing”, which can be regarded as the most primitive intelligent material. However, modern bionics can greatly enhance the humidity regulation function of materials, including concrete, cement and other materials that were previously considered to be non-environmentally friendly building materials. In addition to regulating humidity, intelligent materials can also reduce electromagnetic radiation, inhibit bacteria and sterilize, absorb toxic gases, and regulate room temperature. Some intelligent materials themselves are recyclable resources, which in turn reflects the design concept of sustainable development of ecological buildings from another perspective.

    4.Research on energy-saving methods of building materials for ecological buildings
    4.1 Passive energy-saving methods in green buildings
    (1) Overview of passive energy-saving methods: Using non-electrical equipment to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction is a passive energy-saving method. Specifically, in the planning and design of ecological buildings, through the design of the wall, the indoor temperature can be adjusted by using sunlight, and through the modification of the roof, the natural wind can pass through without rapidly lowering the indoor temperature. And through solar energy and other equipment, energy is stored and used to supply some indoor electrical equipment to maintain the operation of the indoor electrical equipment, so that the indoor temperature is always kept at a condition suitable for human life. This is an active energy-saving method.
    (2) Passive application of building materials for ecological buildings. Insulated doors and windows are indispensable in ecological buildings. The use of thermal insulation doors and windows is a reasonable application of passive building materials. Thermal insulation doors and windows require the use of aerogel glass, which has the advantages of low density, good hydrophobic effect, green environmental protection, and easy cutting. It can also be used in asbestos insulation carpets, fiberglass products, etc.

    4.2 Energy-saving methods of renewable energy in ecological buildings
    The energy-saving methods of renewable energy in ecological buildings in my country are mainly divided into three categories: using solar energy technology, using biomass energy, and using geothermal energy
    (1) Energy-saving by using solar energy technology
    For my country, solar energy technology has been developed relatively maturely, and the use of solar energy is also a general trend. Internationally, other countries have a long history of developing integrated technology of buildings and photovoltaics, especially using solar energy for power generation. Today, solar water heaters have been widely used in my country. In the future, my country will use photovoltaic power generation to solve the problem of household electrical appliances.
    (2) Energy-saving by using geothermal resources
    Geothermal energy cannot but mention the development and use of heat pumps. In daily life, heat pumps can be used to heat and keep water warm, and can also ensure the temperature of vegetable greenhouses in winter. If higher temperature heat pumps can be developed, then this technology can also be applied to the industrial field.
    (3) Energy-saving by using biomass energy
    In life, we have many materials and even wastes that we do not pay attention to that can be reasonably used. Among them, straw and garbage liquefaction products can be used for cooking. In addition, there is biogas technology. These are not valued by people, but through reasonable technical adjustments, they can be turned into treasures for human use.

    In summary, as environmental pollution phenomena such as haze continue to intensify, people pay more and more attention to ecological protection. my country’s construction industry is developing rapidly, and the country has also put forward new requirements for this. In the construction industry, we should implement the concept of “thinking first”, increase revenue and reduce expenditure, continuously integrate existing resources, reduce waste and pollution, and make more use of natural resources and biological material resources to achieve the best energy conservation and emission reduction. The author believes that in the future development of the construction industry, we must continue to vigorously develop ecological buildings, which is conducive to the comprehensive development of our country.

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